真丝地毯,编织传奇.

 

 

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knotting silk rug
Knotting Silk Rug(编织丝毯)
编织地毯打结砍头
Knot and Cut the Yarn(打结砍头)
Turkish knots double knots
Turkish knot(double knot,symmetrical knot)土耳其结(双打结,对称结)
Persian knot,single knot,asymmetrical knot
Persian knot(single knot,asymmetrical knot)波斯结(单打结,不对称结)
genuine mulberry silk yarn
Genuine Silk Yarn(桑蚕丝线)
地毯图案设计
Draw Design(图案设计)
design chart for hnotting silk rug
Design Chart(织毯用图纸)
编织织毯工具
Tools (织毯工具)
silk worm
Silk Worm (蚕)
cocoons
Cocoons (蚕茧)

 
 

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Silk Carpet Knowledge 真丝地毯知识

What is the silk carpet? The silk carpet means that the piles and warps are made of genuine natural silk. They are various in designs, luxurious in appearance, harmonious in colors matching, shining and smooth in surface, soft yet durable in texture, well proportioned in pattern, anti-worm-eaten not drop hair. Hand-knot silk carpets are of highly artistic value. They are practical for use and valuable for collection. To possess a high quality silk rug is not only a treasure for a lifetime but also an heirloom for next generation.

何为真丝地毯?
真丝地毯的经线和绒毛是用天然蚕丝所编织而成. 其外观奢华,图案丰富,配色谐调,毯面光亮柔滑,质地
耐用,图案比例匀称,抗虫蛀,不掉毛.手工真丝地毯拥有很高的艺术价值,实用价值和收藏价值.拥有一块高档的真丝地毯不但是人生之宝,也是传世的宝贝.

How to make the silk carpets?
It is very complicated to make silk rugs.1.Draw design and match colors. Draw design on a chart and match the different colors on it so that the weavers can follow to weave. This is a creative work. The artisans must have a blue print in their mind. Actually the finished carpet is the representation of the design. To some extent, this is a very important step because the good designs and harmonious colors matching directly relate to the value of the silk rug. 2. Dye silk. Traditionally dyers use natural pigments (indigo, saffron crocus, acorn cup, and larkspur stem...) to dye the silk into different colors. But now chemical dye is also used. There are always 10-20 different colored silk yarns used for one silk rug. 3. Hang the warps. Warps will be bound on the loom rack, which is almost like a standing frame consisting of 4 bars. The warps will be bound tightly and evenly between the top bar and the bottom one. Heddles will be bound between another horizontal bar and the warps so that they can separate the front warps and the back warps. After the foundation is woven by plain silk thread the carpet knotting can start. 4. Hand knot silk carpet. The silk yarn will be tied around the two adjoining warp yarns to create a knot. There are different types of knots such as real tied double knots (symmetrical knots and Turkish knots), real tied single knots (unsymmetrical knots or Persian knots) and untied hooked knots (They are unreal knots, which are poor workmanship but time saving and material saving.). The end of the silk yarn is cut off by knife to create the pile. When a raw of knots is finished the wefts are woven through compartment space between front and back warps. Weavers use iron comb to hit the piles so that they can fix together firmly. 5. Shear carpet, make tassels, and wash the finished carpet. After months' or even years' work the whole silk carpet is finished. It is cut down from the loom rack. The surface of the silk rug is sheared evenly. The ends of the warps are bound to make beautiful tassels. The whole rug is washed thoroughly for sale.
Hand knotting silk rug is a time consuming work and harmful for eyes. It took one weaver 3 months to knot a 2×3ft silk carpet with 470 real tied double knots per square inch quality (standard 260 lines double knots workmanship). But it took one experienced weaver almost one year to knot a 2×3ft silk carpet with 1100 real tied double knots per square inch quality (standard 400 lines double knots workmanship). So the high quality silk rugs are called "soft gold".


真丝地毯如何编织而成呢?
其工序非常复杂.第一步工序是制图和配色.把图案画在图纸上并搭配不同的颜色以便织工参照图纸编织.这是一项创造性的工作.工艺师需要胸有成竹,其实织成的毯子是图纸的再现.这一步工作很重要因为好的图案和配色与毯子的价值息息相关.第二步是染线.传统方法是用植物矿物染色,比如用靛蓝,藏红花,橡籽壳,飞燕草等.但现在化学染色也同时使用.一块手工真丝地毯一般要用10至20种不同颜色的纱线.第三步挂经.经线自上而下地绕在由两个横梁和两根立柱做成的架子上.把综线缠绕在另一个横木和经线之间,综线能使前后经分开,以便打结和过纬.用白色丝线把底子打好后,手工打结即可开始.第四步是手工打结编织.把丝线缠绕在相邻的两根经线上打成双打结(土耳其结,对称结)或单打结(波斯结,不对称结).有些较次的工艺是打虚结,纱线只是勾在后经上并未真正缠在经线上,这种工艺省时省料,但生产出的毯子价值不高.当一排结打完时,纬线从前经和后经的中间穿过.并用梳子将其砸实,使绒毛结牢固地拴在经上.第五步是平毯,挽穗子和洗毯.历经数月或数年的工作,一整块真丝地毯织成了,从架子上割下来,表面修剪平整,经线的末端被挽成穗子以增加美感.成品在出售前要经历彻底的水洗去污处理.编织手工打结地毯是一种费时费力的工作,而且对人的眼睛伤害很大.一个织工三个月的时间能织一块双打结260道(470结点每平方英寸)的真丝地毯.但如果编织同样尺寸更精细的双打结400道(1100结点每平方英寸)的真丝地毯,则需要一年的工夫.所以高档真丝地毯被誉为软黄金.


Knot density and line of hand-knotted silk rugs:
260lines: 22 knots per inch and 470knots per square inch; 300lines:25 knots per inch and 625knots per square inch; 400lines: 33 knots per inch and 1100 knots per square inch; 500lines: 41-42 knot per inch and 1730knots per square inch.

结点密度各道数:
260道:22结每英寸,约470结每平方英寸.300道:25结每英寸,约625结每平方英寸.400道:33结每英寸,约1100结每平方英寸.500道:41-42结每英寸,约1730结每平方英寸.

Normal sizes and shapes for area silk rugs:
1m=3.28ft, 1 square meter=10.76 square feet.
2x3ft=61x91cm, 3x5ft=91x152cm, 4x6ft=121x183cm, 5.5x8ft=168x244cm, 6x9ft=183x274cm, 6.56x9.84ft=200x300cm, 7x10ft=213x305cm, 8x8ft=244x244cm, 8x10ft=244x305cm, 8.2x11.48ft=250x350cm, 9x12ft=274x365cm, 10x14ft=305x427cm, 12x18ft=366x549cm, 2.5x8ft=76x244cm, 2.5x10ft=76x305cm, 3x12ft=91x365cm
Rectangular, square, runner, oval and round are normal shapes of silk carpets.

常见尺寸和形状:
1米=3.28英尺,1平方米=10.7636平方英尺,1英尺=12英寸. 长方形,正方形,长条形,圆形,椭圆形,为常见形状, 具体尺寸对照如下:2 x 3英尺=61 x 91公分, 3 x 5英尺=91 x 152公分, 4 x 6英尺=121 x 183公分, 5.5 x 8英尺=168 x 244公分, 6 x 9英尺=183 x274公分, 6.56 x 9.84英尺=200 x 300公分, 7 x 10英尺=213 x 305公分, 8 x 8英尺=244 x 244公分, 8 x 10英尺=244 x 305公分, 8.2 x 11.48英尺=250 x 350公分, 9 x 12英尺=274 x 365公分, 10 x 14英尺=305 x 427公分, 12 x 18英尺=366 x 549公分, 2.5 x 8英尺=76 x 244公分, 2.5 x 10英尺=76 x 305公分, 3 x 12英尺=91 x 365公分.

How to choose the silk rugs?
Choose the right size: When choosing an area silk carpet you should realize the actual size of the silk rug is in approximate size that you want. Silk carpets are works of art and are not made to cover the entire floor, so you should leave 1 to 2 feet (30 to 60 centimeters) of vacant space between the edge of carpet and its surrounding furniture or walls. Choose the right designs: 1. Allover: Carpets in this layout have no central design and the designs spread throughout the whole carpet separately or connected. There may be one same design or several designs appearing repeatedly throughout the whole carpet. 2. Medallion: In this layout, a large centerpiece is the main design called "Medallion". And this layout is the most popular one in handmade carpets. The shapes of medallions are usually circular, oval, octagonal, hexagonal and star-like. This kind of carpets is always symmetric in layout. 3. One-sided: For this layout, the designs are only properly viewed from one side. The designs on one-sided carpets are usually images of people, animals and sceneries. Since one-sided carpets should not be viewed upside-down they are often used as wall hangings. Choose the right colors: Silk carpets have many colors but the first impression of the color a carpet gives you is the contrast of various colors that creates the different designs. This is the same way in all other art fields. The colors of a carpet are mainly identified by the field (background) color and the border color. The field color is dominant and it usually covers the most space of the whole rug. The most commonly used background colors are red, blue, black, beige, white and yellow. Usually the silk rug will appear dark and light colors if you view from different angles. When choosing the silk carpet you should consider whether the field color matches your furniture and the wall.

如何选择合适的真丝地毯?
选尺寸:当你挑选真丝地毯时,应首先考虑它的大小和尺寸.真丝地毯无标准尺寸,所以它只能是接近你所需要的准确尺寸.真丝地毯是一种工艺品,它不是用来覆盖整个地面,所以其边缘通常要离开墙壁或家具30至60厘米左右,以突出装饰效果.选图案:满地花式:此种图案没有中心图案,图案单独地或者是相联地展开在毯面上.可能是由一种或多种图案地不断重复.奖章式:此图案由一个突出的大的中心作为主图案,此中心叫奖章,这种图案最为常见.中心奖章可圆可方,也可为多边形或者是星形.此图案多为对称的.直上图案:此图案只能从一个方向来观赏,其内容多为人物,动物,风景.所以多用于挂毯装饰墙壁.选颜色:真丝地毯由多种颜色的丝线织成,但给予你最初的印象是各种颜色的对比结果.这和其它的工艺美术品一样.丝毯的色彩主要由地色即主背景色和边框色来定.最常见的地色为红,蓝,黑,米色和黄色.真丝地毯反光,从不同的角度去看色彩有亮有暗.当你选择时一定要考虑好主色和你的家具及墙壁色彩是否匹配.

What is the number of lines and knots count for hand-made silk carpets?
The knot density and knot workmanship are of the most important factors to determine the value of the silk rug. The quality of silk, the harmony of colors, the balance of the pattern and regular shape are also important factors to determine the quality of a silk rug. As far as the knot density concerned, higher density of knots means more work and higher quality. High quality silk rugs usually have 400 real knots per square inch (KPI) or above. Above 600 KPI can be regarded as very high quality. Above 900 KPI is regarded as super fine quality. Above 1100KPI rugs are extremely fine and rare; but most of them are very small because they are too difficult to make. In china we also use the lines to mark the quality of hand-made rugs. Suppose standard 240lines rugs there are 20knots per inch horizontally and vertically. For standard 260lines rug, there are 22 knots per inch horizontally and vertically. For standard 300lines rug, there are 25 knots per inch horizontally and vertically. For standard 400lines rug, there are 33 knots per inch horizontally and vertically. For standard 500lines rug, there are 41-42 knots per inch horizontally and vertically. However some dishonest dealers always exaggerate the actual lines of the rugs.


什么是地毯道数和打结密度?
真丝地毯的道数和打结密度是决定其质量的重要因素.就道数和打结密度而言,高道数意为高密度.也意为着更大的劳动量和更高的质量.优质真丝地毯一般在240道以上,也就是每平方英寸要打400个结点以上,合每平方厘米62个结点.结点数在600个每平方英寸以上的毯子质量更高.结点数在900每平方英寸以上的毯子就是顶级的产品.每平方英寸超过1100结的毯子非常稀少,极为珍贵, 但一般比较小.当然这里是指真实的打结工艺,也叫实绞工艺.标准240道毯子每英寸上下左右各有20个结点,260道的有22个结点,300道的有25个结点,400道的有33个结点,500道的有41-42个结点.有些不诚实的商人往往夸大其毯子的道数欺骗顾客.

What is the difference between the different knotting workmanship of silk carpets?
There are different types of knot workmanship. Real double knots workmanship (symmetrical knots or Turkish knots) is the best and most difficult to make. This kind of knot workmanship makes the silk rug very solid; the piles and the warps are fixed tightly; dense piles always stand even baring heavy traffic for a long time; the piles do not drop off. Another real single knot workmanship (unsymmetrical knot or Persian knot) is also good. For this kind of silk rug the structure is a little bit soft. The poor workmanship is the hooked knot workmanship (unreal knot) because the piles are hooked not tied on two adjacent back warps to create the unreal knots. This poor workmanship can save the working time and material. The piles are not dense, which makes the designs obscure. It is easy to open the piles to see the inside warps. This kind of rug is not durable and solid. So the value of this kind silk rug is much less.

真丝地毯打结工艺有哪几种?它们有何不同?
打结工艺也有多种,真实双打结毯子又叫土耳其结和对称结,是最为复杂难做的一种.这种工艺的毯子非常结实,浓密的绒毛和经线缠绕得很紧.这种毯子即使经常踩踏也不倒毛不掉毛.单打结或叫波斯结也叫不对称结,工艺好也非常好,单结毯子相对柔软一些.工艺最差的就是虚打结毯子,这种毯子的绒毛不是真正缠在经线上,而上挂在经线上.虚结工艺地毯省工省料,绒毛不密,毯面图案不清晰.绒毛容易被拨开看到里边的经线.这种丝毯不耐用,易倒毛,易脱结,所以价值低.

What is genuine silk, spun silk and artificial silk rugs?
A lot of so called silk rugs are not real natural silk made. Real silk rug means the piles and warps are made of genuine natural silk. High quality real silk is directly reeled off from the best part of the cocoons. The fibers are natural, long, soft, durable, smooth and shining. If you see the piles you can find they are consist of each single silk filament. When touching, it feels warm. Real silk pile will not drop hair in use. Spun silk is also called silk but it is not in high quality because the yarn is spun from the broken cocoons and silk waste. It has short fibers and it is like the thin rope. Spun silk is treated and it is not very shining, smooth and durable. Artificial silk (rayon and mercerized cotton) is very cheap and in poor quality. The yarn is like the thin rope and the fiber is short, the color is dull. It feels cool to touch.

什么是真丝地毯,绢丝地毯和人造丝地毯?
有些所谓的真丝地毯并非纯真丝所织.优质真丝地毯的经线和绒毛都是用纯丝所做,优质真丝是从蚕茧最好的部分抽出来的.天然真丝纤维长,柔软结实,光滑明亮.如果细看绒毛,会发现绒毛是由单根纤维组成,摸起来有温润的手感.真丝地毯使用时不会起毛,掉絮.绢丝也叫丝,它是从破蚕茧和真丝的下脚料中纺出来的,质量较低.绢丝纤维短,如细线.因为绢丝经过处理,和纯真丝相比,不是那么光亮柔滑结实耐用.还有一种丝是人造丝也叫丝光棉,,这种材料非常便宜,质量极差,纤维短,绒毛如细线,色彩呆反,不柔和,白色部分刺眼,摸起来手感冰凉.

How to test real silk rugs? Rubbing the surface you could feel real silk is warm, the artificial silk rug stays cool to the touch. If you scratch the piles hardly genuine silk pile will not drop hair but artificial silk will drop hair. Burning the yarn is very effective and practical test. Clip off a small piece of the fringe and pull a knot out of the rug from the back and burn the yarn. Look at the ash and smell the smoke. If the material was rayon and mercerized cotton, the ash should be soft and chalky, and the smell should be like burning paper. If it is real silk the ash should be black and crispy, and the smell should be like burning hair because real silk contains rich protein like our hair. Chemical test is accurate. At room temperature, mix a solution of 16 g copper sulfate (CuSO4) in 150 cc of water, add 8-10 g glycerine, then add caustic soda (sodium hydroxide: NaOH) until a clear solution is obtained. This solution will dissolve a small sample of natural silk, but will leave cotton, rayon, and nylon unchanged.

如何辨别真丝地毯?
用手摩擦毯面能感觉到真丝地毯手感温和而人造丝比较凉.如果用力刮毯子的绒毛,真丝地毯的绒毛不会脱絮,而人造丝地毯则不然.燃烧绒毛是另一种实用有效的方法,从绒毛中和拔掉一两根纤维或从经线的末端剪掉一根,然后点燃.检查燃后的灰烬,并闻烟味.人造丝的灰烬发白而且柔软,气味如同烧纸的味道.但真丝燃烧后灰烬呈黑色,结在一起很脆易碎.气味如同燃烧头发.因为真丝和头发都含有蛋白质.化学测试最为准确.在室温下,用16克的硫酸铜加150CC的水,然后加8-10克的甘油,再加一点苛性纳,直到溶液变清为至.这种溶液可溶解真丝,但对于人造丝则不会溶解.

 

 

 

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