Silk carpets introduction 真丝地毯简介
Silk carpets, made of high quality natural silk, are produced
in a complicated traditional way. They are the finest carpets.
These highly valuable creations are visually stunning and
exquisite to the touch. Silk is lighter than wool or cotton
yet very durable when properly maintained and cared. A silk
carpet is not only a treasure for a lifetime but can become
a treasured heirloom. Whether you choose a carpet as a floor
covering or as a decorative wall hanging it is really a piece
of art. A lot of pre-work was involved before knot weaving.
1. Make design and match colors 制图和配色
Draw design on a chart and match the different colors on it
so that the weavers can follow. This is a creative work. The
artisans must have a blue print in their mind. Actually the
finished carpet is the representation of the design. To some
extent, this is the first important thing because it can determine
the value of the carpet.
2. Prepare the material 备料
Reel off the raw silk filament from the cocoons. One third
of the silk from the cocoons can be used to weave silk carpets.
Then bind the silk fiber into silk strands. Put the silk strands
into boiling alkaline water for 30-40 minutes to make it soft
and later rinse the alkali and impurities by clean water.
Traditionally use natural pigments (indigo, saffron crocus,
acorn cup, and larkspur stem...) to dye the yarns into different
colors.But now we also use chemical dye which is also called
synthetic dye. Many different colored silk strands will be
used when weaving carpets.
3. Hang the warps 挂经
Warps will be fixed on the loom rack, which is almost like
a standing frame consisting of 4 bars. The warps will be looped
tightly between the top bar and the bottom one. Heddles will
be bound between another horizontal bar and warps. After the
foundation is woven by plain silk thread the carpet knotted weaving
4. How to knot silk carpets 如何打结编织真丝地毯
The silk yarn will be tied around the two adjoining warp yarns
to create a knot. There are Turkish Ghiordes knots and the
Persian Senneh knots. The end of the silk thread will be cut
off by knife. When a raw of knots is finished the weft yarns
will be woven through compartment space between front and
back warps. With the comb the knots and wefts will be struck
hard against the wefts.
5.Making tassel, shearing carpet
and washing carpet
After monthes' or even years' work the whole carpet is finished.
It will be cut down from the loom rack. The ends of the warps
will be coiled up into beautiful tassels. The carpet will
be sheared evenly and washed thoroughly before being sold.
It will take one girl about half a year to make a 2×3ft carpet
of 300 lines (90,000knots per square foot), 1.5 years to weave
a 2×3ft silk carpet of 500 lines (250,000knots per square
foot), two years to knot a 2×1.5 feet silk carpet with 800
lines(640,000knots per square foot) and 3 years to make a
1.2×1.5 feet silk carpet with 1000 lines(1000,000 knots per
square foot). The silk thread used to knot top quality carpet
is as thin as a hair. When knotting, weavers even need to
use magnifier. The work is so harmful to weavers' eyes that
they seldom can make the second same piece. So this kind of
silk carpet is named "soft gold".
Carpet weaving history in China 中国织地毯的历史
Carpet weaving appeared in China during the West Han Dynasty
2000 years ago. During the 8th century Chinese felt carpets
were prevailed and they were even stitched by silver threads.
The dragon carpets of the 17th and 18th century were especially
magnificent. This was possibly the peak of Chinese knotting
art. But very few pieces of ancient carpets produced before
the Qing Dynasty (1644 AD-1911AD.) are preserved. In the early
times of 20th century Americans and Europeans established some
carpet factories in Tianjin, Qingdao and Beijing. The mainly
material was wool, but few silk was applied at that time.
After liberation (1949AD.), carpet-weaving industry was well
developed. A lot of new designs appeared such as Peking Design,
Esthetic Design, Floral Design, Embossed Design, Antique Design,
and Chinese-Persian Design (originated from Middle East further
developed in China, very popular at present.). Hundreds of
academically educated designers improved the traditional models
and trained weaving masters. China became one of the worldwide
leading producers of the finest Oriental carpets in the 1980s.
The finest silk carpet of the world, with a density of 1,000,000
knots per square foot (1000lines per foot) was from Zhenping,
Nanyang Prefecture (our hometown) in Central China. That carpet
was listed in Guinness Book of Record in 1998.
Chinese silk carpets are woven out of the high quality silk,
Hand-knotted, with high-density of knots and superb quality, graceful
and various in design, harmonious in colors matching, shining
and smooth in surface, soft yet durable in texture, well proportioned
and orderly in pattern. Free from confusion, anti-worm-eaten.
Due to these features, Chinese silk carpets are of high artistic
value, and good for decorations or collection. In addition
the reasonable price, Chinese silk carpets become one of the
best-welcomed carpets in the international market.
Knot density 打结密度
120lines（道，线）: 14,000knots（结,点）∕square foot（每平方英尺）
300lines: 90,000knots ∕square foot
400lines: 160,000knots ∕square foot
500lines: 250,000knots ∕square foot
600lines: 360,000knots ∕square foot
800lines: 640,000knots ∕square foot
1000lines: 1,000,000knots ∕square foot
Normal size and shape 通常尺寸
1ft（英尺）= 30.48cm（厘米）1m（米）=3.28ft（英尺）1 square meter（平方米）= 10.76
|2 x 3(ft)
||61 x 91(cm)
|2.5 x 4(ft)
||76 x 121(cm)
|2.5 x 8(ft)
||76 x 244(cm)
|2.5 x 10(ft)
||76 x 305(cm)
|3 x 3 (ft)
||91 x 91(cm)
|3 x 5 (ft)
||91 x 152(cm)
|3 x 12(ft)
||91 x 366(cm)
|4 x 4(ft)
||122 x 122(cm)
|4 x 6(ft)
||122 x 183(cm)
|5 x 8(ft)
||152 x 244(cm)
|6 x 6(ft)
||183 x 183(cm)
|6 x 9(ft)
||183 x 274(cm)
|8 x 8(ft)
||244 x 244(cm)
|8 x 10(ft)
||244 x 305(cm)
|9 x 12(ft)
||274 x 366(cm)
|10 x 14(ft)
||305 x 427(cm)
|12 x 18(ft)
||366 x 549(cm)
|18 x 26(ft)
||549 x 792(cm)
Rectangular, square, runner, oval and round are normal shapes
of silk carpets.
When choosing a carpet you should consider the size and shape
of the carpet. Silk carpets have special measures. So the
size could be approximately with that you want. Silk carpets
are works of art and are not made to cover the entire floor,
so there usually will be at least 1 to 2 feet (30 to 60 centimeters)
of vacant space between the edge of carpet and its surrounding
furniture or walls. For the sizes of rectangular, square and
runner carpets, it is no need to explain. However for the
round carpet the size is measured by its diameter. For the
oval shaped carpet, the longer diameter is considered to be
the length and the shorter one the width.
Basic layout 基本图案
Carpets in this layout have no central design and the designs
spread throughout the whole carpet separately or connected.
There may be one same design or several designs appearing
repeatedly throughout the whole carpet.
In this layout, a large centerpiece is the main design called
"Medallion". And this layout is the most popular
one in handmade carpet. The shapes of medallions are usually
circular, oval, octagonal, hexagonal and star-like. This kind
of carpets is always symmetric in layout.
For this layout, the designs are woven in only one direction.
Therefore the carpet can only be properly viewed from one
side. The designs on one-sided carpets are usually images
of people, animals and sceneries. Since one-sided carpets
should not be viewed upside-down they are often used as tapestries.
Silk carpets have many colors but the first impression of
the color a carpet gives you is the contrast of various colors
that creates the different designs. This is the same way in
all other art fields. The colors of a carpet are mainly identified
by the field (background) color and the border color. The
field color is dominant. It usually covers the entire carpet
with the exception of the border and the most commonly used
colors are red, blue, black, beige and yellow. But some times,
the colors of background and the border are so distinguishable.
So when choosing the silk carpet you should consider whether
the field color matches your furniture and the wall.
There are many styles in Chinese silk carpet. Typical Chinese
styles are like dragon design, phoenix design, Buddhist and
Taoist symbol design. Persian style is very important and
popular. Since introduced in China, it has been very well
developed. A lot of high-density knot silk carpets are woven
in Persian style. Turkish style and other styles also can
be seen in Chinese silk carpets.
Quality Criteria 质量标准
What Determines A Good Silk Carpet? 质量由何而定
The knot density is one of the most important criteria of
quality. The quality of silk,the workmanship, the harmony
of colors and the balance of the pattern are also important
factors to determine the quality.
As far as the knot density concerned, we consider 120 lines
(14400knots/square foot) silk carpet medium fine, 300 lines
(90,000knots/square foot) silk carpet fine, 400 lines (160,000
knots/square foot) silk carpet super fine, above 500 lines
(250,000 knots/square foot) silk carpet extreme fine, 1000
lines (1000,000 knots/square foot) silk carpet the finest.
The Persian and Turkish silk carpet are very famous for their
design and quality but compared with Chinese silk carpet,
the knot density is much lower. China produces extremely high
knot-density silk carpets and silk tapestries, which workmanship
are incredibly exquisite.
How to take care of silk carpet?
Silk carpet is a kind of luxury decoration. When use it, you
should attach great attention so as to prolong its life.
Placing the silk carpet 铺毯
When place the silk carpet, put a good quality underlay below
it. This will not only give better resilience underfoot, but
also prolong the life of silk carpet. The carpet mat can absorb
the moisture of the floor and prevent the carpet slipping.
How to clean silk carpets (silk rugs)?清洗及去污
Generally speaking, every 2 years you should look for a professional
carpet cleaning company to clean the silk carpets one time.
In daily life you can vacuum the carpet to remove dirt but
not vacuum the fringes. If beer, wine or oil stains the silk
carpets but not seriously you can use a towel to dilute the
spill quickly then use lukewarm water with a mild detergent
and a dash of vinegar to dab stain with soft cloth.
When you don't use the carpet you should roll it against the
direction of the nap and sore it at a dry place in case of
being damped. You should not put the carpet in a plastic bag.
Shifting directions 调换方向
Depends on the traffic every 6 months or one-year please shift
the direction of the carpet so as the piles can keep in good
How to test real silk rugs?
1.Rub the surface. You could feel real silk from artificial silk by vigorously rubbing the pile with your open palm. The real silk rug feels warm, the artificial silk rug stays cool to the touch.
2.Burn the yarn. This test is very effective and actually can be helpful. Clip off a small piece of the fringe, or pull a knot out of the rug from the back. Burn it. Look at the ash and smell the smoke. If the material was cellulose (rayon), the ash should be soft and chalky, and the smell should be like burning paper (most paper is made of cellulose). If it is real silk, the ash should be ?black and crispy, and the smell should be like burning hair (you're burning protein, the same stuff your hair is made of).
3.Dissolve the yarn. The most accurate test is one that chemically differentiates protein from cellulose or petrochemicals. One such test: at room temperature, mix a solution of 16 g copper sulfate (CuSO4) in 150 cc of water. Add 8-10 g glycerine, then caustic soda (sodium hydroxide: NaOH) until a clear solution is obtained. This solution will dissolve a small sample of natural silk, but will leave cotton, rayon, and nylon unchanged.
so much to read our article. If you can have a better
understanding of the silk carpet we will be satisfied.