knots(Turkish knot) 双打结
knot (Persian knot) 单打结
is the silk carpet?
The silk carpets mean that the piles and warps are made of genuine
natural silk. They are various in designs, luxurious in appearance,
harmonious in colors matching, shining and smooth in surface, soft
yet durable in texture, well proportioned in pattern, anti-worm-eaten
not drop hair. Hand-knot silk carpets are of highly artistic value.
They are practical for use and valuable for collection. To possess
a high quality silk rug is not only a treasure for a lifetime but
also an heirloom for next generation.
to make the silk rugs? It
is very complicated to make silk rugs.1.Draw design and match colors.
Draw design on a chart and match the different colors on it so that
the weavers can follow to weave. This is a creative work. The artisans
must have a blue print in their mind. Actually the finished carpet
is the representation of the design. To some extent, this is a very
important step because the good designs and harmonious colors matching
directly relate to the value of the silk rug. 2. Dye silk. Traditionally
dyers use natural pigments (indigo, saffron crocus, acorn cup, and
larkspur stem...) to dye the silk into different colors. But now
chemical dye is also used. There are always 10-20 different colored
silk yarns used for one silk rug. 3. Hang the warps. Warps will
be bound on the loom rack, which is almost like a standing frame
consisting of 4 bars. The warps will be bound tightly and evenly
between the top bar and the bottom one. Heddles will be bound between
another horizontal bar and the warps so that they can separate the
front warps and the back warps. After the foundation is woven by
plain silk thread the carpet knotting can start. 4. Hand knot silk
carpet. The silk yarn will be tied around the two adjoining warp
yarns to create a knot. There are different types of knots such
as real tied double knots (symmetrical knots and Turkish knots),
real tied single knots (unsymmetrical knots or Persian knots) and
untied hooked knots (They are unreal knots, which are poor workmanship
but time saving and material saving.). The end of the silk yarn
is cut off by knife to create the pile. When a raw of knots is finished
the wefts are woven through compartment space between front and
back warps. Weavers use iron comb to hit the piles so that they
can fix together firmly. 5. Shear carpet, make tassels, and wash
the finished carpet. After months' or even years' work the whole
silk carpet is finished. It is cut down from the loom rack. The
surface of the silk rug is sheared evenly. The ends of the warps
are bound to make beautiful tassels. The whole rug is washed thoroughly
Hand knotting silk rug is a time consuming work and harmful for
eyes. It took one weaver 3 months to knot a 2×3ft silk carpet with
470 real tied double knots per square inch quality (standard 260
lines double knots workmanship). But it took one experienced weaver
almost one year to knot a 2×3ft silk carpet with 1100 real tied
double knots per square inch quality (standard 400 lines double
knots workmanship). So the high quality silk rugs are called "soft
carpet weaving history in China. Carpet weaving appeared
in China during the West Han Dynasty 2000 years ago. During the
8th century Chinese felt carpets were prevailed and they were even
stitched by silver and gold threads. The dragon carpets of the 17th
and 18th century were especially magnificent. This was possibly
the peak of Chinese knotting art in the old time. But very few pieces
of ancient carpets produced before the Qing Dynasty (1644 AD-1911AD.)
are preserved. In the early times of 20th century Americans and
Europeans established some carpet factories in Tianjin, Qingdao
and Beijing to knot wool rugs. After 1949, carpet weaving industry
was well developed in China. A lot of new designs appeared such
as Peking design, Persian design, esthetic design and antique design.
Hundreds of academically educated designers improved the traditional
models and trained weaving masters. China became one of the worldwide
leading producers of the finest Oriental carpets in the late of
1980s. Compared with the quality and price of Iranian rugs high
quality Chinese silk rugs have more advantages and they are welcomed
in high-end market. After the year of 2000 this industry declined
in output quickly year by year because weavers can make much more
money to do other jobs than knot rugs. Very few young people want
to learn this handicraft. Obviously China hand-knotted rugs industry
will disappear in the near future.
density and lines:
260lines: 22 knots per inch and 470knots per square inch; 300lines:25
knots per inch and 625knots per square inch; 400lines: 33 knots
per inch and 1100 knots per square inch; 500lines: 41-42 knot per
inch and 1730knots per square inch.
sizes and shapes: 1m=3.28ft, 1 square meter=10.76 square
2x3ft=61x91cm, 3x5ft=91x152cm, 4x6ft=121x183cm, 5.5x8ft=168x244cm,
6x9ft=183x274cm, 6.56x9.84ft=200x300cm, 7x10ft=213x305cm, 8x8ft=244x244cm,
8x10ft=244x305cm, 8.2x11.48ft=250x350cm, 9x12ft=274x365cm, 10x14ft=305x427cm,
12x18ft=366x549cm, 2.5x8ft=76x244cm, 2.5x10ft=76x305cm, 3x12ft=91x365cm
Rectangular, square, runner, oval and round are normal shapes of
to choose the silk rugs?
Choose the right size: When choosing an area silk carpet you should
realize the actual size of the silk rug is in approximate size that
you want. Silk carpets are works of art and are not made to cover
the entire floor, so you should leave 1 to 2 feet (30 to 60 centimeters)
of vacant space between the edge of carpet and its surrounding furniture
or walls. Choose the right designs: 1. Allover: Carpets in this
layout have no central design and the designs spread throughout
the whole carpet separately or connected. There may be one same
design or several designs appearing repeatedly throughout the whole
carpet. 2. Medallion: In this layout, a large centerpiece is the
main design called "Medallion". And this layout is the
most popular one in handmade carpets. The shapes of medallions are
usually circular, oval, octagonal, hexagonal and star-like. This
kind of carpets is always symmetric in layout. 3. One-sided: For
this layout, the designs are only properly viewed from one side.
The designs on one-sided carpets are usually images of people, animals
and sceneries. Since one-sided carpets should not be viewed upside-down
they are often used as wall hangings. Choose the right colors: Silk
carpets have many colors but the first impression of the color a
carpet gives you is the contrast of various colors that creates
the different designs. This is the same way in all other art fields.
The colors of a carpet are mainly identified by the field (background)
color and the border color. The field color is dominant and it usually
covers the most space of the whole rug. The most commonly used background
colors are red, blue, black, beige, white and yellow. Usually the
silk rug will appear dark and light colors if you view from different
angles. When choosing the silk carpet you should consider whether
the field color matches your furniture and the wall.
factors can determine the quality and value of silk carpet?
The knot density and knot workmanship are of the most important
factors to determine the value of the silk rug. The quality of silk,
the harmony of colors, the balance of the pattern and regular shape
are also important factors to determine the quality of a silk rug.
As far as the knot density concerned, higher density of knots means
more work and higher quality. High quality silk rugs usually have
400 real knots per square inch (KPI) or above. Above 600 KPI can
be regarded as very high quality. Above 900 KPI is regarded as super
fine quality. Above 1100KPI rugs are extremely fine and rare; but
most of them are very small because they are too difficult to make.
In china we also use the lines to mark the quality of hand-made
rugs. Suppose standard 240lines rugs there are 20knots per inch
horizontally and vertically. For standard 260lines rug, there are
22 knots per inch horizontally and vertically. For standard 300lines
rug, there are 25 knots per inch horizontally and vertically. For
standard 400lines rug, there are 33 knots per inch horizontally
and vertically. For standard 500lines rug, there are 41-42 knots
per inch horizontally and vertically. However some dishonest dealers
always exaggerate the actual lines of the rugs.
There are different types of knot workmanship. Real double knots
workmanship (symmetrical knots or Turkish knots) is the best and
most difficult to make. This kind of knot workmanship makes the
silk rug very solid; the piles and the warps are fixed tightly;
dense piles always stand even baring heavy traffic for a long time;
the piles do not drop off. Another real single knot workmanship
(unsymmetrical knot or Persian knot) is also good. For this kind
of silk rug the structure is a little bit soft. The poor workmanship
is the hooked knot workmanship (unreal knot) because the piles are
hooked not tied on two adjacent back warps to create the unreal
knots. This poor workmanship can save the working time and material.
The piles are not dense, which makes the designs obscure. It is
easy to open the piles to see the inside warps. This kind of rug
is not durable and solid. So the value of this kind silk rug is
A lot of so called silk rugs are not real natural silk made. Real
silk rug means the piles and warps are made of genuine natural silk.
High quality real silk is directly reeled off from the best part
of the cocoons. The fibers are natural, long, soft, durable, smooth
and shining. If you see the piles you can find they are consist
of each single silk filament. When touching, it feels warm. Real
silk pile will not drop hair in use. Spun silk is also called silk
but it is not in high quality because the yarn is spun from the
broken cocoons and silk waste. It has short fibers and it is like
the thin rope. Spun silk is treated and it is not very shining,
smooth and durable. Artificial silk (rayon and mercerized cotton)
is very cheap and in poor quality. The yarn is like the thin rope
and the fiber is short, the color is dull. It feels cool to touch.
to take care of silk carpet?
carpet is a kind of luxury decoration. When use it, you should attach
great attention so as to prolong its life. When place the silk carpet,
it is better to put a good quality underlay below it. This will
not only give better resilience underfoot, but also prolong the
life of silk carpet. The carpet mat can absorb the moisture of the
floor and prevent the carpet slipping. But it is not a must. When
you don't use the carpet you should roll it following the direction
of the piles and store it at a dry place in case of being damped.
Depends on the traffic every 6 months or one-year please shift the
direction of the carpet so as the piles can keep in good condition.
to clean silk carpets?Generally speaking, every 2 years
you should look for a professional carpet cleaning company to clean
the silk carpets one time. In daily life you can vacuum the silk
carpet to remove dirt but not vacuum the fringes. If beer, wine
or oil stains the silk carpets but not seriously you can use a towel
to dilute the spill quickly then use lukewarm water with a mild
detergent and a dash of vinegar to dab stain with soft cloth.
to test real silk rugs?
Rubbing the surface you could feel real silk is warm, the artificial
silk rug stays cool to the touch. If you scratch the piles hardly
genuine silk pile will not drop hair but artificial silk will drop
hair. Burning the yarn is very effective and practical test. Clip
off a small piece of the fringe and pull a knot out of the rug from
the back and burn the yarn. Look at the ash and smell the smoke.
If the material was rayon and mercerized cotton, the ash should
be soft and chalky, and the smell should be like burning paper.
If it is real silk the ash should be black and crispy, and the smell
should be like burning hair because real silk contains rich protein
like our hair. Chemical test is accurate. At room temperature, mix
a solution of 16 g copper sulfate (CuSO4) in 150 cc of water, add
8-10 g glycerine, then add caustic soda (sodium hydroxide: NaOH)
until a clear solution is obtained. This solution will dissolve
a small sample of natural silk, but will leave cotton, rayon, and